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[[Bilde:Galen.jpg|thumb|140px|Galen]]
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[[Fil:Galen.jpg|thumb|Galen]]
'''Galén''', latin. ''Claudius Galenus'', gresk. ''Klaudios Galenos'', (født ca. 130  død ca. 200) var en gresk lege, [[Anatomi|anatom]] og [[filosof]]. Betraktes av mange som en av de mest innflytelsesrike legene gjennom alle tider. I en periode av sitt liv var han livlege for [[gladiator]]er, som ga ham gode muligheter til å studere [[anatomi]] og [[kirurgi]].
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[[Fil:Dioskorides - 03.jpg|thumb|[[Der Wiener Dioscurides]] Blad 3v er Galen omgitt av farmasøyter, med Dioscorides til høyre og Crateuas til venstre. Neste par er Apollonius Mys og Nicander. Det siste paret er Andreas og Rufus]]
 
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'''Galen''', latin. '''Claudius Galenus''', gresk. ''Klaudios Galenos'', også kjent som '''Galen av Pergamon''' (født ca. 130  død ca. 200) var en gresk lege, anatom og filosof. Betraktes av mange som en av de mest innflytelsesrike legene gjennom alle tider. I en periode av sitt liv var han livlege for gladiatorer, som ga ham gode muligheter til å studere anatomi og [[kirurgi]].
  
 
== Biografi==
 
== Biografi==
Han var født i [[Pergamon]] i Lilleasia og  etter studier i [[Smyrna]], [[Korint]] og [[Alexandria]] arbeidet han som lege i Pergamon inntil han  reiste til [[Roma]] i 162. I Roma var han [[Marcus Aurelius]] livlege og holdt forelesninger om medisin. Galen er blitt kaldt ”Legeprinsen” og i ry stod han bare under [[Hippokrates]].  
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Han var født i Pergamon i Lilleasia og  etter studier i Smyrna, Korint og Alexandria arbeidet han som lege i Pergamon inntil han  reiste til Roma i 162. I Roma var han Marcus Aurelius livlege og holdt forelesninger om medisin. Galen er blitt kaldt ”Legeprinsen” og i ry stod han bare under [[Hippokrates]].
 
 
  
 
== Galenos' lære ==
 
== Galenos' lære ==
Galenos var påvirka av [[Hippokrates]]' medisinske tenkning, av [[Herofilos]]' og [[Erasistratos]]' lære i [[anatomi]] og [[fysiologi]], og av [[Platon]]s og [[Aristoteles]]' filosofi.
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Galenos var påvirket av [[Hippokrates]]' medisinske tenkning, av Herofilos' og Erasistratos' lære i anatomi og fysiologi, og av Platons og Aristoteles' filosofi.
  
 
Galenos utviklet Hippokrates' sykdomslære og terapi videre. Når det gjaldt legemidler delte han dem i 3 klasser:
 
Galenos utviklet Hippokrates' sykdomslære og terapi videre. Når det gjaldt legemidler delte han dem i 3 klasser:
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Også Galenos' medisinske filosofi har hatt betydning for medisinsk tenkning like til 1800-tallet. Det var f.eks. han som definerte de tre personlighetstypene - den flegmatiske, den koleriske og den melankolske.
 
Også Galenos' medisinske filosofi har hatt betydning for medisinsk tenkning like til 1800-tallet. Det var f.eks. han som definerte de tre personlighetstypene - den flegmatiske, den koleriske og den melankolske.
  
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==Verk==
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With Greek and Latin Titles and ''standardized bibliographical abbreviations'': [https://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Afrontmatter%3D1&force=y Liddell & Scott: Greek-English Lexicon]. See also ''Cambridge Companion to Galen'': Appendices. Vol. and pp. notation according to Kühn edition). Ordered according to Coxe's taxonomy of 1846 (see '''References'''), which includes a summary of each work. Alternative names in (parentheses). ''Italicised'' citations from Galen's works refer to the Kühn edition.
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Galen's own Bibliographies
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* On My (His) Own Books (''Lib. Prop.'')<ref>The start of this work, from the Singer translation, is online [http://www.roger-pearse.com/weblog/?p=1046 here].</ref>
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* On the Order of my Own Books (''Ord. Lib. Prop.'')
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=== Introductory Treatises (Prolegomena, Εἰσαγωγή (Eisagôgê), Introductio) ===
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: 2. The Best Doctor is also a Philosopher (A good physician must also be a philosopher) ''Si quis Optimus Medicus est, Eundum esse Philosophum'' (''Opt. Med.'')<ref>An English translation of this is available as: Brian, P., 1977, [http://archive.samj.org.za/1977%20VOL%20LI%20Jul-Dec/Articles/11%20November/4.10%20HISTORY%20OF%20MEDICINE%20-%20GALEN%20ON%20THE%20IDEAL%20OF%20THE%20PHYSICIAN.%20P.%20Brain.pdf "Galen on the ideal of the physician"], South Africa Medical Journal, 52: 936-938</ref>)
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: 3. Of verbal sophistry ''De Sophismatis in Verbo Contingentibus (Soph.)''
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: 5. Of the appropriate writings of Galen. ''De Libris Propriis (Galeni)'' ''(Lib. Prop.)''
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: 6. Of the order in which his writings are to be placed. ''De Ordine Librorum Suorum''
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: 7. Of different sects in medicine (On Sects) ''De Sectis''
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: 10. An exposition of the empiric sect ''De Subfiguratio(ne) Empirica (Subf. Empir.)''
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: 12. Of the art of medicine. ''De Constitutione Artis Medicae''
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: 16. Of the art of medicine. ''Ars Medicinalis''
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=== I: Physiology and Anatomy ===
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: 1. On The Elements According to Hippocrates ''De elementis secundum Hippocratem'' (''Elem.'')
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: 2. Of temperaments (On Mixtures): Περί κράσεων (peri kraseon); ''De Temperamentis'' (''Temp.''); book III was also translated as ''De Complexionibus'' (On the Complexions) 
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: 3. Two commentaries of Galen on the books of Hippocrates, entitled, “Of the Nature of Man.” ''Galeni, in Librum Hippocratis, de Natura Humana (HNH)''
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: 4. Of the atrabilis, or black bile. ''De Atra Bile, Libellus (Atr. Bil.) (At. Bil.)''
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: 7. Of the bones (On Bones for Beginners) ''De Ossibus (Oss.)''
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: 11. Is blood naturally contained in the arteries? ''An in Arteriis (Natura) Sanguis Contineatur (An sanguis in arteriis natura contineatur)'' (''Art. Sang.'')
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: 12. On Anatomical Procedures (Investigations) ''De Anatomicis Administrationibus'' (''AA'')
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: 13. Of the dissection of the uterus (On the Anatomy of the Uterus) ''De Uteri Dissectione'' (''Ut. Diss.'')
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: 15. Of the uses of the different parts of the human body (On the Usefulness/Utility of the Parts of the Body) ''De Usu Partium Corporis Humani (UP)''
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: 16. Of the utility of respiration ''De Usu (Utilitate) Respirationis''
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: 17. Of the causes of respiration ''De Causis Respirationis''
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: 18. Of the use of the pulse ''De Usu Pulsuum (Pulsuum Usu)''
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: 19. On the subsistence of the Natural Faculties ''De Substantia Facultatum Naturalium''
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: 20. Of the dogmas, or opinions of (On the Doctrines of) Hippocrates and Plato ''De Hippocratis et Platonis Decretis (Dogmatibus) (PHP)'' V
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: [http://classics.mit.edu/Galen/natfac.html 21. Of the natural faculties ''De Facultatibus Naturalibus'' ''(De Naturalibus Facultatibus)'' (''Nat. Fac.'') II]
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: 23. Of the motion (movement) of the thorax (chest) and lungs ''De Motu Thoracis et Pulmonis''
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: 24. That the qualities of the mind depend on the temperament of the body ''Quod Animi Mores Corporis Temperatura Sequantur''
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: 25. Of the foetal formation ''De Foetuum Formatione (Foet. Form.)''
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: 26. Of the semen (On Semen) ''De Semine''
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=== II: Hygiene ===
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: [https://books.google.ca/books?id=QJ1qset07PUC Of the faculties or powers of aliments (On the Powers of Foods) ''De Alimentorum Facultatibus (Alim. Fac.)'']
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: On Good and Bad Humours (''Bon. Mal. Suc.'')
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: On the Ptisan, or Barley-water ''De Ptisana''
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: On the Preservation of Health ''De Sanitate Tuenda'' (''San. Tu.'')
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=== III: Etiology ===
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: 1.4. Of (On) the Causes of Symptoms ''De Symptomatum Causis'' (''Caus. Symp.'')
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: 8. Of plethora ''De Plenitudine (Plen.)''
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: [https://books.google.ca/books?id=W3rsfIUdS_cC&pg=PA5 14. Of procatartic causes (On Antecedent Causes) ''De Causis Procatarcticis'' (''CP'')]
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: 15. Commentary On Hippocrates' 'Epidemics' ''In Hippocratis de Morbis Vulgaribus, Commentarii'' (''Hipp. Epid.'')
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=== IV: Semeiotics ===
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: 1. On the parts affected by disease (On Affected Parts) ''De Locis Affectis'' (''Loc. Aff.'')
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: 2. A concise treatise on the pulse for students (On the Pulse for Beginners) ''De Pulsibus Libellus ad Tyrones'' (''Puls.'')
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: 3. Of the difference of pulses ''De Differentiis Pulsuum (Diff. Puls.)''
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: 4. On the knowledge of the pulse ''De Dignoscendis Pulsibus'' ''(De Pulsuum Differentiis)'' (''Dig. Puls.'')
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: 5. On the causes of the pulse ''De Causis Pulsuum (Caus. Puls.)''
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: 6. Of prediction from the pulse ''De Praesagitione ex Pulsibus (Praes. Puls.)''
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: 7. Synopsis of his sixteen books on the pulse ''Synopsis Librorum Suorum, Sexdecim, de Pulsibus (Syn. Puls.)''
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: 12. Commentaries on the prognostics of Hippocrates (On Hippocrates' 'Prognostic') ''In Prognostica Hippocratis Comment.'' (''Hipp. Prog.'')
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: [http://www.ucl.ac.uk/~ucgajpd/medicina%20antiqua/tr_GalDreams.html 13. On indication (Diagnosis) from Dreams ''De Dignotione ex Insomniis Libellus'']
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: 14. On Prognosis ''De Praegnotione ad Epigenem'' (''Praen.'') V
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=== V: Pharmacy ===
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: On the Powers (and Mixtures) of Simple remedies (Drugs) ''De Simp. Medicament. Facultatibus'' (''SMT'')
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: On Remedies Easy to Prepare: Περι ευποριστων (Peri euporiston); ''De Remediis Parabilibus''
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: Of medicinal substitutes (On Substitute Drugs) ''De Substitutis Medicinis'' (''Suc.'')
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: Of the faculty or power of purgative remedies (On the Power of Cleansing Drugs) ''De Purgantium Medicamentorum Facultate'' (''Purg. Med. Fac.'')
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: Whom, with which, and at what time to purge (Whom to Purge, with what Cleansing Drugs and When) ''Quos Purgare Conveniat, Quibus Medicamentis, et Quo Tempore'' (''Cath. Med. Purg.'')
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: Of the theriaca (On Theriac to Piso) ''De Theriaca, ad Pisonem'' (''Ther. Pis.'')
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: On the use of the theriaca (On Theriac to Pamphilianus) ''De Usu Thericae, ad Pamphilianum''
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: On Antidotes ''De Antidotis'' (''Ant.'')
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: Of the composition of local remedies ''De Compositione Medicamentorum Localium''
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: On the Composition of Drugs (Medical Compounds) according to Places ''De Compositione Medicamentorum Secundum Locus'' (''Comp. Med. (Sec.) Loc.'')
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: Of the compounding of remedies in relation with their genera (On the Composition of Drugs according to Kind) ''De Compositione Medicamentorum per Genera'' (''Comp. Med. per Gen.'')
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: Of weights and measures ''De Ponderibus et Mensuris Libellus''
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=== VI: Instruments of Clinical Practice ===
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: Of venæsection in opposition to Erasistratus ''De Venæsectione, Adversus Erasistratum (Ven. Sect. Er.)''
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: Of venæsection, (Bloodletting) in opposition to Erasistratus ''De Venae Sectione Adversus Erasistrateos Romae Degentes'' ''(Ven. Sect. Er. Rom.)'' XI:197-249
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: Of venæsection, in opposition to Erasistratus of Rome ''De Venasectione Adversus Erasistrataeos qui Romae Degebant''
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=== VII: Therapeutics ===
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: 1. Of the method of curing diseases (On The Therapeutic Method) ''De Medendi Methodo, Seu de Morb. Curandis'' ''(De Methodo Medendi)'' (''MM'')
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: 4. Of remedies of easy preparation (On Remedies Easy to Prepare) ''De Remediis Paratu Facilibus Libellus'' (''Rem.'')
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: 12. Three commentaries on the Hippoc. treatise of the office of the physician. ''In Hippocratis de Officina Medici (In Hippocratem de Officina Medici)(Hipp. Off. Med.)''
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=== Additional works ===
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: Commentary on Hippocrates' Aphorisms ''In Aphorismos Hippoc.'' (''In Hippocratis Aphorismos'') (''Hp. Aph. Com.'') ''(Hipp. Aph.)''
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=== Spurious ===
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: On the Power of Centaura ''De Virtute Centaureae''
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=== Fragments ===
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====Other (not in Coxe taxonomy)====
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: On Medical Experience ''De Experientia Medica'' ''(Med. Exp.)''
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: [https://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&id=GQvrsEkFXj8C On Language and Ambiguity (Fallacies due to language) ''De Captionibus penes Dictionem'']
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: On Containing Causes ''De Causis Contentivus'' (''CC'')
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: On Demonstration ''Dem.''
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: On My (His) Own Opinions ''De Proprius Placitis'' (''Prop. Plac.'')
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: [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1035878 On Examinations by Which the Best Physicians Are Recognised]
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: [http://www.ucl.ac.uk/~ucgajpd/medicina%20antiqua/tr_GalExhort.html Exhortation to the Study of the Arts especially Medicine: To Menodotus]
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: On Things said in Many Ways
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: Opportune Moments in Disease (''Morb. Temp.'')
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: On the affections of the mind
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: The Passions of the Soul ''De Propriorum Animi Cuiuslibet Affectuum Dignotione et Curatione (Aff. Dig.)'' V:40-1
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: On Moral Character (''Mor.'')
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: The Faculties of the Soul Follow the Mixture of the Body (''QAM'')
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: On Propositions Missed out in the Expression of Demonstrations
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: On Propositions With the Same Meaning
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: On Slander ''De calumnia in quo et de vita sua''
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: On Sects for Beginners ''De Sectis Ingredientibus (SI)''
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: Introduction to Logic  ''Institutio Logica (Inst. Log.)''
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: ''Adversus Julianum (Adv. Jul.)''
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: ''De Optima Doctrina'' (''Opt. Doct.'')
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: ''De Animi Cuiuslibet Peccatorum Dignotione et Curatione (Pecc. Dig.)''
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Hippocratic commentaries
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: On the Elements according to Hippocrates (''Hipp. Elem.'')
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: On the Doctrines of Hippocrates and Plato ''De Placitis Hippocratis et Platonis (PHP)'' V
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: Commentary on Hippocrates' Aphorisms (''Hp. Aph. Com.'')
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: On Hippocrates' 'Epidemics' (''Hipp. Epid.'')
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: On Hippocrates' 'Prognostic' (''Hipp. Prog.'')
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: [http://www.ucl.ac.uk/~ucgajpd/medicina%20antiqua/tr_GNatHom.html Commentary On Hippocrates' On the Nature of Man (''HNH'')]
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Collections
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: [https://books.google.ca/books?id=tyip3Kf68TYC&pg=PP9 On Food and Diet. Grant M (trans.) Routledge 2000: 7 treatises]
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::On the Humours
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::On Black Bile (''Atr. Bil.'')
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::On the Powers of Foods ''De alimentorum facultatibus (Alim. fac.)''
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::On Uneven Bad Temperament (''Inaeq. Int.'')
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::On the Causes of Disease (''Caus. Morb.'')
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::On Barley
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===Collections===
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* Kühn, C.G. (ed.) Claudii Galeni Opera Omnia.  Leipzig: C. Cnobloch, 1821–1833, rpt. Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1964-5. (Greek, Latin trans.) ''Editio Kuchniana Lipsiae''
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* Galeni Scripta Minora. Leipzig 1884-93 3 vols. (Marquadt, Müller, Helmreich eds.) ''SM''
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* [http://cmg.bbaw.de/epubl/online/editionencmg_05.html Corpus Medicorum Graecorum, Leipzig, 1914–present. Vol. V ''CMG'']
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* Brock AJ. Greek Medicine, Being Extracts Illustrative of Medical Writers from Hippocrates to Galen. 1929 (repr. 1977)
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* Singer PN (trans.) Selected works by Galen.  OUP 1997
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*[https://books.google.ca/books?id=bU6Vy29M84EC Walzer R, Frede M. (trans.) Three Treatises on the Nature of Science: On the Sects for Beginners ; An Outline of Empiricism ; On Medical Experience. Hackett Publishing, 1985]
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====BIUM Online sources====
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* [https://www.biusante.parisdescartes.fr/histoire/medica/galien.php First printed editions of Galen at the Bibliothèque Interuniversitaire de Médecine of Paris (BIUM)] studies and digitized texts by the Bibliothèque interuniversitaire de santé see its digital library [https://www.biusante.parisdescartes.fr/histoire/medica/index.php Medic@].
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'''CMG Online sources'''
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* [http://cmg.bbaw.de/epubl/online/galges.html List of Galens works] by the ''[http://cmg.bbaw.de/ Corpus Medicorum Graecorum]'' with further links to digitized editions, manuscripts and modern translations.
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==Referanser==
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<references/>
 
==Litteratur==
 
==Litteratur==
 
* Garcia-Ballester,Luis, ''Galen and Galenism, Theory and Medical Practice from Antiquity to the European Renaissance'', Ashgate Variorum, Hampshire, G.B., Vermont USA 2002
 
* Garcia-Ballester,Luis, ''Galen and Galenism, Theory and Medical Practice from Antiquity to the European Renaissance'', Ashgate Variorum, Hampshire, G.B., Vermont USA 2002
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==Eksterne lenker==
 
==Eksterne lenker==
* [http://www.med.virginia.edu/hs-library/historical/antiqua/galen.htm Galen]
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{{commons|Category:Galenus of Pergamum}}
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* [http://web.archive.org/web/20051119083933/http://www.med.virginia.edu:80/hs-library/historical/antiqua/galen.htm Galen]
 
* [http://classics.mit.edu/Galen/natfac.2.two.html On the Natural Faculties ]
 
* [http://classics.mit.edu/Galen/natfac.2.two.html On the Natural Faculties ]
* [http://www.medicinaantiqua.org.uk/bio_gal.html Galen: a Biographical Sketch]
 
 
* [http://www.tidsskriftet.no/pls/lts/pa_lt.visSeksjon?vp_SEKS_ID=1225546 Den greske legekunsten i Roma]
 
* [http://www.tidsskriftet.no/pls/lts/pa_lt.visSeksjon?vp_SEKS_ID=1225546 Den greske legekunsten i Roma]
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* [https://classicalwisdom.com/people/galen-father-of-modern-medicine/ Galen father of modern medicine]
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* [https://www.worldhistory.org/Galen/ Galen]
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* [https://www.ucl.ac.uk/~ucgajpd/medicina%20antiqua/mm_hypertexts.html Tekster]
  
  
 
[[Kategori:Personer]]
 
[[Kategori:Personer]]

Nåværende revisjon fra 18. jun. 2021 kl. 18:04

Galen
Der Wiener Dioscurides Blad 3v er Galen omgitt av farmasøyter, med Dioscorides til høyre og Crateuas til venstre. Neste par er Apollonius Mys og Nicander. Det siste paret er Andreas og Rufus

Galen, latin. Claudius Galenus, gresk. Klaudios Galenos, også kjent som Galen av Pergamon (født ca. 130 død ca. 200) var en gresk lege, anatom og filosof. Betraktes av mange som en av de mest innflytelsesrike legene gjennom alle tider. I en periode av sitt liv var han livlege for gladiatorer, som ga ham gode muligheter til å studere anatomi og kirurgi.

Biografi

Han var født i Pergamon i Lilleasia og etter studier i Smyrna, Korint og Alexandria arbeidet han som lege i Pergamon inntil han reiste til Roma i 162. I Roma var han Marcus Aurelius livlege og holdt forelesninger om medisin. Galen er blitt kaldt ”Legeprinsen” og i ry stod han bare under Hippokrates.

Galenos' lære

Galenos var påvirket av Hippokrates' medisinske tenkning, av Herofilos' og Erasistratos' lære i anatomi og fysiologi, og av Platons og Aristoteles' filosofi.

Galenos utviklet Hippokrates' sykdomslære og terapi videre. Når det gjaldt legemidler delte han dem i 3 klasser:

  • Varme, kalde. Fuktige og tørre
  • Legemidler som ved siden av sin hovedvirkning også hadde bivirkninger
  • Legemidler med spesifikk virkning, f. eks. avføringsmidler og brekkmidler

Galenos fremstilte medikamentene selv med stor omhu og pinlig nøyaktighet. Et legemiddel skulle inneholde den virksomme bestandel i en form som lett kunne tåles av den syke. En rekke oppskrifter på legemidler som fortsatt er i bruk, stammer fra Galenos (galenisk farmasi).

I sitt syn på kroppen hadde han en strengt logisk og systematisk tilnæring. Han tenkte seg kroppen gjennomstrømma av fire væsker (humorer): svart galle, gul galle, blod og flegma (slim). Disse ble balansert av de fire elementene (ild, luft, vann og jord), de fire kvalitetene varme, fuktighet, kulde, tørrhet, de fire livsfasene (barndom, ungdom, voksen alder og alderdom) og de fire årstidene. I tillegg hadde kroppen tre slags gasser som ble danna i de tre sentrale organene hjerte, lever og hjerne. Sjukdom skyldtes en ubalanse i kroppsvæskene, og senere tiders utbredte bruk av årelating stammer fra Galenos.

Galenos' betydning skyldes de observasjonene han gjorde av kroppen, mer enn teoriene hans. Han gjorde omfattende anatomiske studier, og holdt offentlige anatomiforelesninger og demonstrasjoner. Pga. forbudet mot disseksjon av mennesker, måtte han bruke dyr. Derfor er ikke alle observasjonene hans helt presise. Men han står bak viktige oppdagelser for å forstå fordøyelsen, nervesystemet, blodomløpet og åndedrettet. Han var den første som brukte pulsen i diagnostisk øyemed.

Også Galenos' medisinske filosofi har hatt betydning for medisinsk tenkning like til 1800-tallet. Det var f.eks. han som definerte de tre personlighetstypene - den flegmatiske, den koleriske og den melankolske.

Verk

With Greek and Latin Titles and standardized bibliographical abbreviations: Liddell & Scott: Greek-English Lexicon. See also Cambridge Companion to Galen: Appendices. Vol. and pp. notation according to Kühn edition). Ordered according to Coxe's taxonomy of 1846 (see References), which includes a summary of each work. Alternative names in (parentheses). Italicised citations from Galen's works refer to the Kühn edition.

Galen's own Bibliographies

  • On My (His) Own Books (Lib. Prop.)[1]
  • On the Order of my Own Books (Ord. Lib. Prop.)

Introductory Treatises (Prolegomena, Εἰσαγωγή (Eisagôgê), Introductio)

2. The Best Doctor is also a Philosopher (A good physician must also be a philosopher) Si quis Optimus Medicus est, Eundum esse Philosophum (Opt. Med.)[2])
3. Of verbal sophistry De Sophismatis in Verbo Contingentibus (Soph.)
5. Of the appropriate writings of Galen. De Libris Propriis (Galeni) (Lib. Prop.)
6. Of the order in which his writings are to be placed. De Ordine Librorum Suorum
7. Of different sects in medicine (On Sects) De Sectis
10. An exposition of the empiric sect De Subfiguratio(ne) Empirica (Subf. Empir.)
12. Of the art of medicine. De Constitutione Artis Medicae
16. Of the art of medicine. Ars Medicinalis

I: Physiology and Anatomy

1. On The Elements According to Hippocrates De elementis secundum Hippocratem (Elem.)
2. Of temperaments (On Mixtures): Περί κράσεων (peri kraseon); De Temperamentis (Temp.); book III was also translated as De Complexionibus (On the Complexions)
3. Two commentaries of Galen on the books of Hippocrates, entitled, “Of the Nature of Man.” Galeni, in Librum Hippocratis, de Natura Humana (HNH)
4. Of the atrabilis, or black bile. De Atra Bile, Libellus (Atr. Bil.) (At. Bil.)
7. Of the bones (On Bones for Beginners) De Ossibus (Oss.)
11. Is blood naturally contained in the arteries? An in Arteriis (Natura) Sanguis Contineatur (An sanguis in arteriis natura contineatur) (Art. Sang.)
12. On Anatomical Procedures (Investigations) De Anatomicis Administrationibus (AA)
13. Of the dissection of the uterus (On the Anatomy of the Uterus) De Uteri Dissectione (Ut. Diss.)
15. Of the uses of the different parts of the human body (On the Usefulness/Utility of the Parts of the Body) De Usu Partium Corporis Humani (UP)
16. Of the utility of respiration De Usu (Utilitate) Respirationis
17. Of the causes of respiration De Causis Respirationis
18. Of the use of the pulse De Usu Pulsuum (Pulsuum Usu)
19. On the subsistence of the Natural Faculties De Substantia Facultatum Naturalium
20. Of the dogmas, or opinions of (On the Doctrines of) Hippocrates and Plato De Hippocratis et Platonis Decretis (Dogmatibus) (PHP) V
21. Of the natural faculties De Facultatibus Naturalibus (De Naturalibus Facultatibus) (Nat. Fac.) II
23. Of the motion (movement) of the thorax (chest) and lungs De Motu Thoracis et Pulmonis
24. That the qualities of the mind depend on the temperament of the body Quod Animi Mores Corporis Temperatura Sequantur
25. Of the foetal formation De Foetuum Formatione (Foet. Form.)
26. Of the semen (On Semen) De Semine

II: Hygiene

Of the faculties or powers of aliments (On the Powers of Foods) De Alimentorum Facultatibus (Alim. Fac.)
On Good and Bad Humours (Bon. Mal. Suc.)
On the Ptisan, or Barley-water De Ptisana
On the Preservation of Health De Sanitate Tuenda (San. Tu.)

III: Etiology

1.4. Of (On) the Causes of Symptoms De Symptomatum Causis (Caus. Symp.)
8. Of plethora De Plenitudine (Plen.)
14. Of procatartic causes (On Antecedent Causes) De Causis Procatarcticis (CP)
15. Commentary On Hippocrates' 'Epidemics' In Hippocratis de Morbis Vulgaribus, Commentarii (Hipp. Epid.)

IV: Semeiotics

1. On the parts affected by disease (On Affected Parts) De Locis Affectis (Loc. Aff.)
2. A concise treatise on the pulse for students (On the Pulse for Beginners) De Pulsibus Libellus ad Tyrones (Puls.)
3. Of the difference of pulses De Differentiis Pulsuum (Diff. Puls.)
4. On the knowledge of the pulse De Dignoscendis Pulsibus (De Pulsuum Differentiis) (Dig. Puls.)
5. On the causes of the pulse De Causis Pulsuum (Caus. Puls.)
6. Of prediction from the pulse De Praesagitione ex Pulsibus (Praes. Puls.)
7. Synopsis of his sixteen books on the pulse Synopsis Librorum Suorum, Sexdecim, de Pulsibus (Syn. Puls.)
12. Commentaries on the prognostics of Hippocrates (On Hippocrates' 'Prognostic') In Prognostica Hippocratis Comment. (Hipp. Prog.)
13. On indication (Diagnosis) from Dreams De Dignotione ex Insomniis Libellus
14. On Prognosis De Praegnotione ad Epigenem (Praen.) V

V: Pharmacy

On the Powers (and Mixtures) of Simple remedies (Drugs) De Simp. Medicament. Facultatibus (SMT)
On Remedies Easy to Prepare: Περι ευποριστων (Peri euporiston); De Remediis Parabilibus
Of medicinal substitutes (On Substitute Drugs) De Substitutis Medicinis (Suc.)
Of the faculty or power of purgative remedies (On the Power of Cleansing Drugs) De Purgantium Medicamentorum Facultate (Purg. Med. Fac.)
Whom, with which, and at what time to purge (Whom to Purge, with what Cleansing Drugs and When) Quos Purgare Conveniat, Quibus Medicamentis, et Quo Tempore (Cath. Med. Purg.)
Of the theriaca (On Theriac to Piso) De Theriaca, ad Pisonem (Ther. Pis.)
On the use of the theriaca (On Theriac to Pamphilianus) De Usu Thericae, ad Pamphilianum
On Antidotes De Antidotis (Ant.)
Of the composition of local remedies De Compositione Medicamentorum Localium
On the Composition of Drugs (Medical Compounds) according to Places De Compositione Medicamentorum Secundum Locus (Comp. Med. (Sec.) Loc.)
Of the compounding of remedies in relation with their genera (On the Composition of Drugs according to Kind) De Compositione Medicamentorum per Genera (Comp. Med. per Gen.)
Of weights and measures De Ponderibus et Mensuris Libellus

VI: Instruments of Clinical Practice

Of venæsection in opposition to Erasistratus De Venæsectione, Adversus Erasistratum (Ven. Sect. Er.)
Of venæsection, (Bloodletting) in opposition to Erasistratus De Venae Sectione Adversus Erasistrateos Romae Degentes (Ven. Sect. Er. Rom.) XI:197-249
Of venæsection, in opposition to Erasistratus of Rome De Venasectione Adversus Erasistrataeos qui Romae Degebant

VII: Therapeutics

1. Of the method of curing diseases (On The Therapeutic Method) De Medendi Methodo, Seu de Morb. Curandis (De Methodo Medendi) (MM)
4. Of remedies of easy preparation (On Remedies Easy to Prepare) De Remediis Paratu Facilibus Libellus (Rem.)
12. Three commentaries on the Hippoc. treatise of the office of the physician. In Hippocratis de Officina Medici (In Hippocratem de Officina Medici)(Hipp. Off. Med.)

Additional works

Commentary on Hippocrates' Aphorisms In Aphorismos Hippoc. (In Hippocratis Aphorismos) (Hp. Aph. Com.) (Hipp. Aph.)

Spurious

On the Power of Centaura De Virtute Centaureae

Fragments

Other (not in Coxe taxonomy)

On Medical Experience De Experientia Medica (Med. Exp.)
On Language and Ambiguity (Fallacies due to language) De Captionibus penes Dictionem
On Containing Causes De Causis Contentivus (CC)
On Demonstration Dem.
On My (His) Own Opinions De Proprius Placitis (Prop. Plac.)
On Examinations by Which the Best Physicians Are Recognised
Exhortation to the Study of the Arts especially Medicine: To Menodotus
On Things said in Many Ways
Opportune Moments in Disease (Morb. Temp.)
On the affections of the mind
The Passions of the Soul De Propriorum Animi Cuiuslibet Affectuum Dignotione et Curatione (Aff. Dig.) V:40-1
On Moral Character (Mor.)
The Faculties of the Soul Follow the Mixture of the Body (QAM)
On Propositions Missed out in the Expression of Demonstrations
On Propositions With the Same Meaning
On Slander De calumnia in quo et de vita sua
On Sects for Beginners De Sectis Ingredientibus (SI)
Introduction to Logic Institutio Logica (Inst. Log.)
Adversus Julianum (Adv. Jul.)
De Optima Doctrina (Opt. Doct.)
De Animi Cuiuslibet Peccatorum Dignotione et Curatione (Pecc. Dig.)

Hippocratic commentaries

On the Elements according to Hippocrates (Hipp. Elem.)
On the Doctrines of Hippocrates and Plato De Placitis Hippocratis et Platonis (PHP) V
Commentary on Hippocrates' Aphorisms (Hp. Aph. Com.)
On Hippocrates' 'Epidemics' (Hipp. Epid.)
On Hippocrates' 'Prognostic' (Hipp. Prog.)
Commentary On Hippocrates' On the Nature of Man (HNH)

Collections

On Food and Diet. Grant M (trans.) Routledge 2000: 7 treatises
On the Humours
On Black Bile (Atr. Bil.)
On the Powers of Foods De alimentorum facultatibus (Alim. fac.)
On Uneven Bad Temperament (Inaeq. Int.)
On the Causes of Disease (Caus. Morb.)
On Barley

Collections

BIUM Online sources

CMG Online sources

Referanser

  1. The start of this work, from the Singer translation, is online here.
  2. An English translation of this is available as: Brian, P., 1977, "Galen on the ideal of the physician", South Africa Medical Journal, 52: 936-938

Litteratur

  • Garcia-Ballester,Luis, Galen and Galenism, Theory and Medical Practice from Antiquity to the European Renaissance, Ashgate Variorum, Hampshire, G.B., Vermont USA 2002
  • Torndike, Lynn; Galen: The man and his times[1]

Eksterne lenker

Commons

Commons har multimedia
for Galén.